Document Type

Working Paper

Publication Title

Beyond Standard Model: Structure Factors of Models of Different Quarks and Neutrinos as Spinning Structures Made of Basic Fractional Charges +- e/3


We consider a possible line of “elementary” particles as composite spinning structures made of just two basic elementary particles of charges + e/3 and -e/3. In considered structures, up to 3 basic charges can be on the axis of rotation and other charges can be in a revolving motion about the axis. In addition to the simplest structures of quarks, an electron and a neutral particle containing mostly one or no charges on the axis of rotation, suggested initially in [4], we analyze possible spatial structures of spinning composite particles having 2 or 3 charges on the axis of rotation. The net force on any charge that is on the axis of rotation must be zero. The net force on any charge revolving in circular orbits about the axis must be non-zero and be directed toward the axis of rotation. Considering that all the forces in the suggested structures are of EM origin, we calculated form factors of spatial arrangements of different spinning structures of the total charges of -e/3 (similar to a d-quark), +2e/3 (similar to a u-quark), -e (similar to an electron), and 0e (assumed to be neutrinos). All the considered structures but one have a non-zero angular momentum (spin) due to a rotational motion of particles and non-zero magnetic moments due to rotational motion of electric charges so they are fermions. One composite structure has a non-zero spin but zero electric charge and zero magnetic moment, so it is likely a boson.

First Page


Last Page


Publication Date

Winter 1-19-2024


Physics Department

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License



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