Document Type

Working Paper

Publication Title

Beyond Standard Model: neutrino dipoles and proto hydrogen bundles.


In our composite models of elementary particles as consisting of just two types of elementary basic charges, +e/3 and -e/3, the axial electric potential of any elementary particle is a function of a distance from the particle, and this function differs from the Coulomb potential of a point total charge of the particle. The electric potential of neutrinos is not zero at close distances from neutrinos. Neutrinos can form dipoles and bundles of 3 or more neutrinos. The three-neutrino bundle (a proto-hydrogen) can be converted to a hydrogen atom. As we suggested in our previous paper [4], the total numbers of basic charges of each of the two types are conserved in any nuclear reaction or conversion. That means that the basic elementary charges that are present in the reactants can join in different combinations to form the products of the reaction. In this paper, we consider the neutrino-antineutrino pairs and compositions of three neutrinos as proto-baryons and a possible origin of an electron-positron pair. We also suggest that a neutrino can “glue” two electrons to form an electron-electron pair.

First Page


Last Page


Publication Date

Winter 3-5-2024


Physics Department



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