Document Type

Working Paper

Publication Title

Beyond Standard Model: Electrostatic Potential Energy of Quarks, Electron, And Neutrinos As Spinning Composite Structures


The potential energy of any composite structure is related to the binding energy of the structure. The equations for the electrostatic potential energy of quarks, electron-like structures, and neutrinos are presented for our models of elementary particles as spinning composite structures. The structures consist of up to 3 basic elementary charges of magnitude e/3 on the axis of rotation and N charges revolving about the axis. We applied these general equations specifically to the models of different quarks, electron and electron-like particles (muon and tau), and neutral particles (neutrinos). It is shown that the electrostatic potential energies of all considered particles are negative, and the electron’s electrostatic potential energy is the lowest among the considered particles.

First Page


Last Page


Publication Date

Winter 3-5-2024


Physics Department



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