Document Type

Working Paper

Publication Title

Proton, Neutron, and Nuclei Models without Strong Nuclear Force


We show that for the particles that have both a charge and a magnetic moment, combining the electrostatic and the magnetic interactions between particles allows to build a consistent description of nuclear structures made of such particles, without introducing the concept of a strong nuclear force. In the modern nuclear physics, protons and neutrons are described as consisting of quarks, the particles that possess the charge and the spin magnetic moment properties. We show that combining the electrostatic and magnetic forces between quarks in nucleons, it is possible to achieve all the required interactions in the nucleons the strong nuclear force is assumed to deliver –to supply both the attraction and the repulsion between the quarks in a nucleon as well as between nucleons in a nucleus. The equilibrium state of the particles in nucleons can be achieved and the equilibrium distance between quarks can be determined using the electromagnetic forces without introducing any additional strong nuclear force. A balance between attraction and repulsion between quarks in an isolated nucleon determines the equilibrium distances between quarks where the net force on each quark is zero and the potential energy of a nucleon is negative and at minimum. We suggest that the combination of the electrostatic force and the force between magnetic moments will work for explaining any system consisting of particles with both electric charge and magnetic moment, including electron and positrons. In another paper, we have shown the electron-positron pairs can be a stable formation, and we suggested that free space might be a network of interacting electrons and positrons at some distances between them, not recombining without external intervention. We hope that comparing the prediction calculated with our models and experimental data on nuclear particles and systems will allow determining the constants related to the magnetic and electrostatic interactions between elementary particles with charge and spin magnetic moment.

Publication Date



Physics Department



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