Document Type

Working Paper


We suggest that the first-generation quarks are not elementary particles, but structures made of a basic elementary particle of charge e/3 and its antiparticle, interacting via an electrostatic force. The structures are suggested for d-quark as consisting of one positive and two negative basic elementary charges, for u-quark as a structure with one negative and three positive basic charges, for an electron as a quark with one positive and four negative basic charges, and for one more quark made of one positive and one negative basic charge. All the suggested structures are in a spinning motion and are stable. The spins of an electron and other quarks are explained as being the quantized orbital angular momenta of the suggested structures. The mass m of the basic elementary particle had been determined as 1.52·10-31 kg, or one-sixth of the electron mass.

Publication Date

Spring 5-4-2023


Physics Department

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License



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