Document Type

Working Paper

Publication Title

Fractional Charge Concept Opened Gates for New Ideas on Composition of Matter


Before the concept of quarks with fractional electric charges was introduced, the electron charge magnitude e was considered as the smallest amount of charge in nature so the charge of any object could be only an integer number of ± e. Then it was suggested that the proton and neutrons are composed of quarks with the fractional charges, combined in such a way that the total charge of a proton occurred to be that same known charge +e, and the charge of a neutron was zero. We suggest expanding that fruitful concept of fractional charges to build structural models of known particles as combinations of basic elementary particles with the charges of +e/3 and -e/3. Different structures made of particles with positive and negative fractional charges can have a positive or negative or zero net charge depending on the balance between the positive and negative fractional charges. Presenting the known “elementary” particles such as quarks and an electron as the composite structures made of basic elementary charges -e/3 and +e/3, it is possible to explain the intrinsic angular momentum (spin) and the intrinsic magnetic moment of the composite particles as resulting from the rotational motion of the basic elementary charges. We suggest that in nuclear reactions that include composite particles made of the basic elementary fractional charges, the total numbers of negative and positive basic elementary charges are conserved. The basic charges present in the reagents re-arrange but are in the same numbers in the products of the reaction as they are in the reagents.

First Page


Last Page


Publication Date

Summer 6-29-2023


Physics Department


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