Hybrid Personal Jurisdiction: It’s Not General Jurisdiction or Specific Jurisdiction, But Is It Constitutional?

Linda Sandstrom Simard, Suffolk University Law School


This Article suggests that specific and general personal jurisdiction are two discrete categories of jurisdiction, not merely the endpoints on a sliding scale. Although many factual scenarios fall neatly within one of these two jurisdictional categories, there are scenarios where some of the characteristics of each type of jurisdiction are present, but neither type is independently satisfied. This Article suggests an analytical framework to determine the constitutionality of exercising jurisdiction in such hybrid cases.